Story No. 175 – Conquest of Makkah occurred without battle or bloodshed in 630 CE
In the Hudaybiyah peace agreement, the Quraish had promised Nabi Muhammad (saw) not to transgress against or oppress the Muslims and their confederates, but they violated the agreement and helped the Bani Bakr tribe to destroy the Khaza’ah tribe, which was one of the confederates of the Muslims. To hamper their aggression, Nabi Muhammad (saw) approached Makkah in secrecy, entered it through an elaborate device, and conquered Makkah with his strong army of approximately ten thousand soldiers which occurred without battle or bloodshed in 630 CE, in the 8th year of the Hijrah (8 AH).
Conquest of Makkah occurred without battle or bloodshed in 630 CENabi Muhammad (saw) destroys the idols
Nabi Muhammad (saw) destroyed the idols in the Kaaba as his grandfather Prophet Abraham (as) had done before. As narrated by Imam Ali (as), “Nabi Muhammad (saw) and I went until we arrived in the Kaaba. Nabi Muhammad (saw) asked me to sit down and he mounted on my shoulders. When I wanted to get up, he noticed a weakness in me. He (saw) dismounted and he himself sat down for me and asked me to mount on his shoulders. I mounted on his shoulders and he got up. I imagined that if I wanted, I would reach the horizon of the heaven. I went up the House and there was on it an idol of brass or copper. I began moving it right and left, from behind and from before until I could pluck it out. Nabi Muhammad (saw) asked me to throw it down and I did. It broke into pieces as pots break.”
When Allah (SWT) granted the great conquest over Makkah to His Nabi Muhammad (saw), there were three hundred idols or more hung on the walls of the Kaaba which the tribes of Quraish worshipped away from Allah (SWT).
The master of those idols was Hubal which was the god of Abu Sufyan ibn Harb. It was made of copper and tied with iron pegs on the wall of the Kaaba. Imam Ali (as) got upon Prophet Muhammad’s (saw) shoulders, plucked this idol out, and threw it to the ground while Nabi Muhammad (saw) was reciting this verse [And say: The truth has come and the falsehood has vanished; surely falsehood is a vanishing (thing). (Noble Qur’an 17:81)] Then, Imam Ali (as) threw down the rest of idols and thus the Kaaba was purified of those filths hung on the walls and taken as gods by Quraish.
Forgiving the Enemies after the Conquest of Makkah
After conquering Makkah, Nabi Muhammad (saw) treated people so kindly that they all were surprised. No one could believe that a victor could treat the defeated party in this way.
People of Makkah had gathered in the Sacred Mosque to see the leader of Muslims and Islam come out of Kaaba and judge those who committed all kinds of persecution against him for thirteen years. However, after breaking the idols, Nabi Muhammad (saw) came out of Kaaba addressing the people of Makkah as such,
“O people! You were bad kinsmen and neighbors for me. You expelled me from my hometown and fought against me in an unmanly way. You did not spare any attempt to persecute me, my friends and my companions. You killed my uncle, Hamza ibn Abd Al-Muttalib. You fought against Allah’s Messenger so I have the right to avenge myself on you. Based on this right, your men must be killed, your wives and children must be taken captive, your property must be seized by the conquerors, and your houses must be demolished. But I leave the judgment to you. What do you think?”
Suhayl ibn Amr, prominent Quraish representing his people, said, “We speak good and think good. You are an honorable brother and an honorable nephew who has power over us.”
These words impressed the tenderhearted Nabi Muhammad (saw) in such a way that his eyes were filled with tears. People of Makkah started weeping. Then Nabi Muhammad (saw) said, “I do the same thing as my brother Joseph did. There is no sin upon you today. May Allah (SWT) forgive you; He is the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful.”
After Conquest of Makkah, general amnesty for all the peopleThis great tolerance and forgiveness brought about the submission of the people of Makkah to Islam. In this triumphant battle, Nabi Muhammad (saw) ordered the Muslims not to fight for any reason other than defense and against the violations of the infidels.
After Conquest of Makkah, general amnesty for all the people
When the Nabi Muhammad (saw) conquered Makkah, he (saw) announced a general amnesty for all the people – except a few individuals, who were to be killed whenever found; amongst these were Abdullah ibn Zab’ari, who used to satirize Nabi Muhammad (saw), Wahshi, who had killed his uncle Hamza ibn Abd Al-Muttalib in the battle of Uhud [When Wahshi recounted the episode of the killing of his uncle, Hamza ibn Abd Al-Muttalib, the Nabi Muhammad (saw) wept profusely but then pardoned him and said: (Disappear from my sight)], Ikramah Ibn Abi Jahl, Safwan Ibn Umayyah and Habbar Ibn al-Aswad – all of whom he eventually pardoned after they were brought before him (saw).
As for Habbar Ibn al-Aswad, he was the person who frightened Zainab – the Prophet Muhammad’s (saw) daughter, who had been sent towards Madinah by her husband, Abu al-Abbas Ibn Rabee – on the way to Madinah as a result of which she suffered a miscarriage. Subsequent to this act of his, the Nabi Muhammad (saw) had declared it permissible to shed his blood.
After the conquest of Makkah he approached the Nabi Muhammad (saw), expressed regret over his misdeed and, seeking forgiveness, said: “O’ Prophet of Allah! We were of the polytheists, however Allah (SWT), by means of you, guided us aright and delivered us from perdition, so disregard my ignorance and that which you have heard about me, and pardon me!”
Nabi Muhammad (saw) said: “I pardon you. Allah (SWT) has exhibited kindness towards you in that He has guided you into Islam; with the acceptance of Islam, bygones become bygones.”